Gene Editing in its “Prime”

DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into amino acids that make up a protein that plays structural or functional roles in an organism.
The Cas1-Cas2 complex takes the foreign DNA (protospacer) and integrates it as spacers in its CRISPR array. The cell then destroys the foreign DNA. It can differentiate between its own spacers and the foreign DNA because the spacers have repeated sequences while the foreign DNA have PAM sequences.
The spacer (tracrRNA) finds the target sequence, and the scaffold (crRNA) binds to the target sequence. This tells the Cas-9 enzyme, an endonuclease, to catalyze a reaction that cuts the DNA at that site.
On the left is NHEJ, where the cell’s normal DNA repair machinery will recognize, but it may mistakenly rejoin join the wrong ends of DNA, resulting in another mutation. On the right is HDR, where a donor DNA template is used to insert an intended DNA section into the genome.
the diverse array of impacts that prime editing could hold for the future

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